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      中國中車科技創新體系建設概述

        中國中車技術創新工作服從和服務于中車公司跨國經營、全球領先戰略目標,堅持“國家需要至上、行業發展至上”原則,堅持自主創新、開放創新和協同創新,堅持正向設計方向,建立與完善適應國際化發展需要的技術創新體系,建設具有國際競爭力的系列化產品體系、國際先進的軌道交通裝備知識體系、完善的國際化軌道交通裝備技術支撐體系,全面提升技術創新能力,推動中國軌道交通裝備產業向產業鏈、價值鏈高端攀升,實現“中車創造”與“中國創造”,為中車公司持續快速發展提供強勁動力。

        以中國中車為基礎,中國軌道交通裝備制造業初步建設了相對完善的、具有一定國際競爭力的技術創新體系。中國中車擁有的高速列車系統集成國家工程實驗室、動車組和機車牽引與控制國家重點實驗室、國家重載快捷鐵路貨車工程技術研究中心、國家軌道客車系統集成工程技術研究中心等11個國家級研發機構和覆蓋主機制造企業的19家國家級企業技術中心為主體的產品與技術研發體系,奠定了軌道交通裝備行業國家技術與產品創新體系的基礎,形成了強勁的國際競爭力。9家海外研發中心、50個省部級研發機構、一批專項技術研發中心充分發揮作用,在軌道交通裝備核心技術突破,產品技術開發等方面取得了豐碩成果。中國中車產品技術研發體系基本涵蓋了從嵌入式底層軟件技術到應用級控制軟件技術,從基礎技術、行業共性技術到產品關鍵技術,從系統集成技術到產品工程化實現技術的全技術鏈,從芯片到板卡,從零件到模塊、部件,從系統到整機整車的全產品鏈,基本形成了能夠滿足中國軌道交通裝備制造行業技術產品發展需要的,包括設計分析、計算仿真、試驗驗證、檢驗測試、信息情報、創新管理等技術創新保障能力。

        中國中車加強軌道交通裝備基礎技術、核心技術、共性技術研發。圍繞重要系統、關鍵部件產品,在高端軌道交通移動裝備系統集成技術、牽引傳動技術、網絡控制技術、轉向架關鍵技術、車體關鍵技術、制動關鍵技術、柴油機關鍵技術、齒輪傳動系統關鍵技術、弓網受流技術、振動噪聲控制技術、工程機械電氣傳動與控制技術、永磁電機、電力電子器件等方面取得重大突破,達到國際先進水平。在基礎材料應用研究,輪軌關系研究、高寒高速動車組關鍵技術研究、車體疲勞試驗研究、服役性能研究、譜系化頭型、重載快捷貨車核心技術基礎理論研究、仿真驗證技術及可靠性技術研究等取得了一批基礎性應用研究成果。基于互聯網的軌道交通旅客信息服務系統、電力電子變壓器、永磁牽引傳動系統等一批前瞻性技術研究取得了階段性研究成果。中國軌道交通裝備國際競爭力極大提升。

        中國中車建立了先進的軌道交通裝備、重要系統和核心部件三級產品技術平臺。形成了擁有自主知識產權、具有國際先進水平、融合世界不同標準體系的高速動車組和交流傳動大功率電力、內燃機車產品技術平臺,具有國際先進水平部分達到領先水平的、擁有完全自主知識產權的鐵路重載及快捷貨運產品技術平臺,可以滿足不同業主需要的城市軌道交通及地鐵車輛產品技術平臺。形成了牽引與控制系統、網絡控制系統、制動系統、走行系統、連接系統、旅客信息系統等重要系統產品技術平臺。形成IGBT、電機、柴油機、功率模塊、網關等產品技術平臺。基于平臺,中國中車快速開發了列車化軌道交通裝備產品。中國中車新產品產值率59.85%,很好滿足了中國軌道交通發展需求和全球不同業主需要。

        通過持續的技術改造和技術升級,中國中車建設了全球領先的高速動車組、大功率電力及內燃機車、先進鐵路客車產品、先進鐵路貨車產品、先進城軌交通及地鐵產品等軌道交通裝備制造基地,形成了國際領先的軌道交通裝備產品制造能力,并在此基礎上,建設了完善的質量保證、安全保障、全球供應商等體系,形成了先進的軌道交通裝備生產制造系統,有能力滿足世界任何軌道交通裝備市場需要。

        中國中車在軌道交通裝備技術標準體系建設中積極發揮作用,初步形成了國際先進的軌道交通裝備產品技術標準體系。三年來,中國中車主持或參與起草或制修訂70余項國際標準,主持或參與起草國家標準200余項,行業標準近1000項。中國中車積極參加建設有國際公信力的中國軌道交通行業認證認可體系,加強與歐、美等先進地區軌道交通行業互認互信工作,保證中國軌道交通行業企業國際競爭力。

        中國中車加強以專利為重點的知識產權工作,擁有專利量以26%/年的速度快速增長,專利質量持續提升。2014年末擁有專利13000余件,發明專利1800余件;申報專利4200余件,申報發明專利2000余件。適應國際化發展戰略,三年來國外專利申報數以70%/年的速度增長,2014年獲得美國、歐洲、日本、澳大利亞、南非等國家授權專利30余件,申報國外專利79件,以專利為重點的知識產權保護體系正在形成。

        中國中車初步建設了相對完善、覆蓋技術創新工作全過程的技術創新管理體系。保障充足的資金、物質投入和滿足要求的創新人才。三年來,中車公司年度研發經費保持8%左右的快速增長,技術投入比例保持5.6%以上,保證了中國中車技術創新能力的持續快速提升。長期堅持建設與完善高效實用的規則制度與理念文化體系,保證技術創新工作的良好秩序。堅持建設和完善科技項目、科技成果、產品技術、知識管理、科技信息等管理體系,保證技術創新工作高效開展,保證技術創新儲備與發展潛力。

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